Glossary

Valerian, hops, and chamomile flower extract

Valerian is a relative of lamb’s lettuce. The essential oil of the rhizomes and roots consists of a large number of components. The main ingredient is bornyl acetate, others are β-caryophyllene, valeranone, valerenal, bornyl isovalerate, valerenic acid and valepotriates. Researchers in somnology (sleep research and sleep medicine) are currently investigating whether chrysin can bind to the receptors of the endogenous neurotransmitter GABA.

Hops contain bitter substances such as humulone and lupulone as well as bitter acids in the hop resin. Essential oil is found in the hop cones, including humulene and caryophyllene, flavonoids and precursors of certain plant pigments (proanthocyanidins). Somnology (sleep research and sleep medicine) is currently testing whether the hop ingredients attack various docking points in the body that control the sleep-wake cycle, and thus show a similar effect to the body’s own sleep hormone melatonin.

The Germanic tribes considered chamomile one of the nine sacred plants. An essential oil containing bisabolol (levomenol) or bisabolol oxides can be obtained from its flowers. Other ingredients are flavonoids such as apigenin, phenolic acids, mucilage, polysaccharides, coumarins. Researchers in somnology (sleep research and sleep medicine) are currently testing whether the secondary plant substance apigenin from chamomile binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the central nervous system.

Beta Glucan

Beta-glucans are a group of β-D-polysaccharides – i.e. multiple sugars – that occur naturally in the cell walls of grains, yeast, bacteria and fungi. Oat and barley beta-glucans produce a variety of physiological effects in our bodies. Thus, beta-glucans contribute to maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels. In the intestinal mucosa, the beta-glucans are metabolized and recognized and absorbed by special immune receptors such as Dectin-1, scavenger cells (macrophages) and dendritic cells. Beta glucans are particularly popular with competitive athletes.

Bioavailability

Bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption in pharmacology and is expressed as the percentage of an administered drug, nutrient or vital substance that reaches the systemic circulation. Bioavailability is by definition 100% when an ingredient is administered intravenously.

Cholin Bitartrat

Experts believe that approximately 20 to 30% of the population in Western industrialized countries have a liver with a high proportion of fat (“fatty liver”). This can only detoxify the body to a limited extent, the liver functions are restricted. Choline contributes to maintaining normal liver function and normal fat and homocysteine metabolism (marker of vascular health).

Cellution

Green coffee bean extract

Unroasted coffee beans contain high levels of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is a secondary plant substance and belongs to the natural hydroxycinnamic acid esters. In various studies, it showed effects on biological systems. It has become the latest trend in nutritional concepts such as the ketogenic diet.

Green tea extract

The tea plant has been cultivated in China for several thousand years and enjoyed in Asia to invigorate and sharpen the mind and concentration. An important ingredient in tea is the stimulating caffeine. However, unlike the caffeine in coffee, which is already absorbed in the stomach, a large part of the caffeine in tea is bound to tannins and is only dissolved in the intestine. Its effect is slower, more lasting and gentle on the body: tea stimulates, but not upsets. Most superfood and adaptogen properties are attributed to tea catechins such as epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The tea leaves also contain amino acids, above all theanine, and tannins.

Gummi Arabicum

Natural, organic and non-GMO fibers from the bark of carefully selected acacia trees. Gum arabic is a macromolecule from the group of heteropolysaccharides. It consists of long-chain, widely branched carbohydrates, which are considered fibres and are only absorbed and utilized through the large intestine. Due to its high fiber content, gum arabic is considered a valuable component of microbiome-optimized nutrition. Gum arabic is approved for foods, including those of organic quality.

Turmeric

Turmeric is a spice that has been known for centuries and is an essential part of both traditional Chinese dietetics and the Ayurveda tradition. Turmeric came to Europe via the Silk Road. Its most important ingredients are essential oils and the secondary plant substances of curcuminoids, above all curcumin. Its flavonoids are subject of a large number of current studies in gestraoenterology, rheumatology, orthopaedics, neurodegeneration, immunology, diabetology/endocrinology. Today, turmeric is also seen as a star among the so-called superfoods and is one of the strong adaptogens.

MSM

MSM is short for methylsulfonylmethane, a natural sulfur compound. Sulfur is an important mineral that’s often referred to as “the forgotten mineral,” even though the human body is made up of about 0.2 percent sulfur. Because it is required for a number of endogenous processes and is a component of many endogenous substances such as enzymes, hormones (e.g. insulin), glutathione (an endogenous antioxidant) and many essential amino acids (e.g. cysteine, methionine, taurine). Sulfur is also an important component of synovial fluid and the inner lining of joint capsules.

NADH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH is also known as coenzyme 1 and plays a central role in the citric acid cycle and in the breakdown of carbohydrates, for example. NADH is involved in over a thousand metabolic processes such as increasing energy in the cells. In this physiological process it is a kind of “bottleneck” in the generation of energy in the cell. The more NADH is available, the more energy is produced and vice versa. In every cell, NADH reacts with the oxygen that we take in through breathing. This creates the universal energy molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and water that occurs in every cell. Research has shown that our NADH levels naturally decrease as we age. The combination of NADH and Q10 in water-soluble form ensures that the user starts the new day with “charged batteries” in the morning.

OPC

OPC (oligomeric proanthocyanidins) is considered a valuable vital substance. It is particularly common in grape seeds, and in smaller amounts in the red-brown skins of peanuts. OPC belongs to the group of polyphenols, which in turn are among the valuable secondary plant substances. In laboratory tests, the antioxidant potential of OPC was determined to be 20 times higher than that of vitamin E and 50 times higher than that of the most well-known antioxidant – vitamin C.

PQQ

Pyrroloquinolinequinone PQQ is an endogenous substance. Related to the coenzyme Q10, PQQ – just like Q10 – can be found in all cells of our tissues and organs such as the heart, brain, muscles and liver. Although PQQ is still relatively unknown as a vital substance, it is found in high concentrations in breast milk, but also in somewhat smaller amounts in green pepper, kiwi, papaya, parsley, soybeans and cocoa beans, tofu and green tea. PQQ plays a physiologically important role in the function of the mitochondria and consequently for our cells: it supports approx. 20,000 regeneration cycles of the proteins involved in the mitochondria. In comparison, vitamin C only manages about four cycles. PQQ is essentially involved as an auxiliary factor in numerous other metabolic processes in the human organism. Therefore, many scientists advocate classifying it as a kind of “supervitamin” in the group of B vitamins. PQQ was even captured from the interstellar dust of a comet in 1999 by the Stardust interstellar spacecraft. Since then, PQQ has been considered a possible component of the “primordial soup”, a mixture of substances that made the enzymatic formation of higher molecular substances such as DNA and thus the emergence of life on our planet possible in the first place. Thanks to the micellar effect of CELLUTION, even small amounts of the extraordinarily expensive natural substance can be used in mitAURO products.

Q10

Q10 – also called ubiquinone – is involved as a co-enzyme in various enzymatic reactions in the body. Coenzyme Q10 is familiar to many, especially from the anti-aging products advertised with it in the cosmetics industry. However, it is often not known that coenzyme Q10 is involved in important physiological processes. In particular, Q10 is important for optimal ATP synthesis function, the energy substance in the body. Whenever energy is produced in the body, coenzyme Q10 is involved. Coenzyme Q10 thus also plays an important role in the cell-internal energy cycle of the mitochondria. Cells in organs with a key role in metabolism that require particularly high levels of energy have a high level of coenzyme Q10. These physiological properties in the body are increasing the importance of coenzyme Q10 in nutrition and sports science.

In the body, however, coenzyme Q10 can only be synthesized in the liver to a limited extent and depending on age, because the liver has the property of converting animal or vegetable extracts, which are ingested through food, into coenzyme Q10. Amino acids, minerals, and B and D vitamins are also needed for production. In addition, a normal liver function must be present for Q10 self-production. Only a small amount of coenzyme Q10 can be ingested through food, usually no more than 1% of the daily requirement recommended by many experts. According to many scientific publications, the assumed daily requirement of a healthy person for coenzyme Q10 for a good energy supply is between at least 60 mg and a recommended 100 mg. Q10 is a fat-soluble, non-water-soluble enzyme and can therefore only be absorbed by the body to a limited extent.

Selenium

Selenium is a vital trace element, a component of enzymes and therefore involved in a large number of reactions in the body. Selenium contributes, for example, to the maintenance of normal hair and nails, to the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and immune system (physical defence), to normal sperm formation (formation of sperm cells). Selenium also helps protect cells from oxidative stress.

Siberian ginseng (eleuthero)

Siberian ginseng is an adaptogen, that means it helps the body to deal better with stress and makes it more resilient. Therefore, taiga root is used to increase physical and mental performance. The taiga root (Eleutherococcus senticosus) has been known in Asian tradition for more than 2000 years and, like ginseng, is one of the adaptogens. Therefore it is also called Siberian ginseng and has also been used in Europe for more than 30 years in dietetics, for example as a tonic.

Boswellia extract

Boswellia extract has long been used in herbal medicine for numerous inflammatory diseases. The boswellic acid it contains is that efficient because it reprograms the inflammatory enzyme into an inflammation-dissolving enzyme.

Zinc

Zinc is a true multiplayer among the trace elements, quantitatively the most common trace element in the human organism and a key element involved in around 300 biochemical metabolic processes. Zinc contributes to the following physiological processes: maintaining normal skin normal protein synthesis, maintaining normal testosterone levels in the blood. normal carbohydrate metabolism maintaining, normal hair, maintaining normal nails, normal macronutrient metabolism to protect cells from oxidative stress; to normal fatty acid metabolism, to normal fertility and reproduction (reproductive ability), to normal cognitive function; to a normal function of the immune system (physical defence), to the maintenance of normal bones, to a normal acid-base metabolism, to the maintenance of normal vision, to a normal vitamin A metabolism, to a normal DNA synthesis and has a function in the cell division.

Passion Flower

The passion flower contains essential oils, essential fatty acids and phytochemicals such as chrysin. This flavanoid was only discovered in the 1990s. Researchers in somnology (sleep research and sleep medicine) are currently investigating whether chrysin can bind to the receptors of the endogenous neurotransmitter GABA.

Frankincense

Frankincense is the air-dried gum resin from various Boswellia or frankincense tree species that came to Europe via the frankincense route. It consists of a mixture of essential oils, resins, mucilage and proteins. The bulk of the resin is made up of terpenes, which include boswellic acids. In the Indian Ayurveda tradition, frankincense has been used as Salai Guggal for various life situations for around 5000 years. Scientific interest in frankincense has increased steadily since the 1980s, so that numerous studies have been published in gastroenterology, orthopedics, rheumatology and immunology, for example.

L-Tryptophan

L-tryptophan is one of the essential amino acids that the body cannot produce itself. The amino acid is involved in important physiological functions. In the body, L-tryptophan represents precursors of both hormones and neurotransmitters. These include, for example, the neurotransmitter serotonin and the sleep hormone melatonin. Melatonin helps reduce the time it takes to fall asleep and alleviate the subjective sensation of jet lag.


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